Human remains, dating back to about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago, have been uncovered in Seberang Perai, along with seashells, pottery and hunting tools.
These artifacts indicate that the earliest inhabitants in the area Seberang Perai were nomadic Melanesians.
Meanwhile, Kedah was facing threats from its stronger northern rivals, Siam and Burma, as well as an internal Bugis revolt.
Thus, Light endeavoured to negotiate with Sultan Abdullah Mukarram Shah of Kedah regarding the cession of Penang Island to the British East India Company, in exchange for military assistance against Kedah's foes.
The Cherok Tok Kun megalith in Bukit Mertajam, uncovered in 1845, contains Pali inscriptions, indicating that the Hindu-Buddhist Bujang Valley civilisation based in what is now Kedah had established control over parts of Seberang Perai by the 6th century.
The entirety of what is now Penang would later become part of the Sultanate of Kedah up to the late 18th century.
Penang is shortened as "PG" in English, or "PP" in Malay.